The Bodhisatta was once a poor householder who took care of his widowed mother. The king was an avid hunter and one time he shot at a clever deer who, upon seeing the arrow coming toward him, fell down and feigned being wounded. When the king approached, the deer leapt up and ran away. After being mocked by his advisors, the king chased after the deer and when it tired, the king caught it and cut it in half with his sword. Exhausted, the king took a rest under a banyan tree that was home to a goblin who had permission from the goblin king to eat any living thing who came to his tree. When the king awoke, the goblin grabbed him and said he was about to be eaten. But the king said if he could go free, he would give the goblin his deer meat now and send a new person to the tree every day. The goblin agreed, but said if any day a person did not come, he would find and eat the king.
Back home, one of his advisors told him that each day they should send a prisoner to the tree with a meal, and not tell the victim what was going to happen there. The goblin ate both the rice and the man and was happy with the arrangement, but when the jails had been emptied, the king had to come up with a new plan. By now everybody knew what the king was doing, so to find a volunteer he offered one thousand coins to anybody who would deliver rice to the goblin. The Bodhisatta, who barely made enough money to survive, decided to accept the task so he could give the money to his mother and let her live comfortably whether he outwitted the goblin or died.
The Bodhisatta told the king he needed to take the king’s golden slippers (so as to not stand on the goblin’s ground), umbrella (so he did not need to step into the tree’s shadow), sword (to make the goblin fearful), and golden bowl (to show the goblin respect rather than putting the rice in his own earthen bowl). The king gave them to him. At the tree, the Bodhisatta used the sword to push the bowl of rice into the tree’s shadow, without stepping into it himself. The goblin urged the Bodhisatta to come under the tree, but he told the goblin he would be a fool to eat him because if he didn’t return home alive, nobody would ever come again and he would stop getting a delicious daily meal. The goblin realized the Bodhisatta was correct and told him he could go back home to his mother.
Then the Bodhisatta, having saved the king’s life by ending the agreement, rebuked the goblin’s evil behavior and convinced him to give up murder and live a righteous life. At the Bodhisatta’s invitation, and with the king’s support, the goblin came to live in a home by the city gate where he would get the best food possible. The king sang the Bodhisatta’s praises and made him his commander-in-chief, and he also followed his teachings and became a virtuous and generous leader.
In the Lifetime of the Buddha
The parents of one of the Buddha’s disciples had been reluctant to let their son adopt a religious life, but he begged them and they agreed. After five years he fully understood dharma and then went out to live alone and meditate in the forest to reach spiritual insight. But after twelve years of striving, he still had not achieved it. One day another disciple visited him at his hut and he learned his parents had fallen into ruin. With no children around to protect them, their servants and workers had stolen everything and they were now homeless beggars clothed in rags. The son began to cry and, realizing he had labored in vain for the past twelve years, decided to renounce the monkhood and return home to care for his parents.
He decided to listen to the Buddha preach one last time before returning home. The Buddha divined this disciple’s situation and so made his morning talk about the virtues of parents. Listening to the sermon, the son realized that though it would be difficult he could remain a disciple and still support his parents, and he resolved to do so. He took up abode nearby their hovel and from then on out he made two daily alms rounds, one for them and a second for himself. He usually got little food for himself, and some days he got none, so he grew pale and thin.
When some other disciples learned what he was doing they told him giving offerings to lay people was an offense and they reported him to the Buddha, who summoned him back to the monastery. The disciple admitted sharing the alms he collected with his parents. But, to the surprise of the disciples, the Buddha praised the son instead of rebuking him. He then told this story to explain this was a good thing to do, and in the past he himself had supported his mother in a similar way.
The king was an earlier birth of Ananda, one of the Buddha’s top disciples, while the goblin was an earlier birth of Angulimala, a dreaded bandit who cut off a finger of each person he murdered and wore it around his neck, and later became a disciple of the Buddha.