Nigrodha Jataka (#445)

temple painting of Nigrodha Jataka

The Bodhisatta was once a king. His mother was infertile and she fell out of favor with her husband, a wealthy merchant, because of it. Eventually, hearing all the gossip about her, she faked being pregnant and after nine months she said she wanted to return home and give birth in her father’s house. While traveling there she found a baby (the Bodhisatta) abandoned under a banyan tree, and with the help of her lady-in-waiting she faked giving birth, claiming the child as her own.

The Bodhisatta was raised with two other children born on the same day. The three grew up as very close friends and were sent together to Taxila to complete their education. When their studies were finished, they wandered through the land to get new experiences.

One morning one of the Bodhisatta’s friends awoke early and heard a conversation between two chickens roosting in the tree above them. The one at the top defecated on the back of a chicken perched below it. The offending chicken apologized, but the soiled chicken remained angry and proclaimed that he was very important, boasting that anyone who killed and ate him would get one thousand pieces of money that morning. The upper chicken scoffed and said anyone who ate his fat would become a king, his middle flesh would become the commander-in-chief, and his flesh by the bones would become the king’s treasurer. The man quickly and quietly climbed the tree and grabbed the uppermost chicken, killing and cooking it for his friends. He served the fat to the Bodhisatta, the middle flesh to his other friend, and ate the flesh near the bones himself. After they were finished eating he told them their fates for later that day.

That morning they walked to the city and took a nap in the royal park. It was a week after the king had died without an heir and the royal chaplain sent the royal chariot out of the palace without a driver, a foolproof method to find someone with sufficient merit to be a great king. The horses walked to the park and stopped in front of the Bodhisatta. The chaplain examined his feet and saw the signs of royalty, which showed he was destined to not only be a king, but to rule all of India. The chaplain ordered all the gongs and cymbals struck to wake the men up and then got on one knee to offer the kingdom to the Bodhisatta. He accepted the crown then and there and brought his friends to the palace as commander-in-chief and treasurer. He ruled righteously.

One day the Bodhisatta thought of his parents and told his commander-in-chief to go get them. But he felt this task wasn’t his responsibility and refused. So the Bodhisatta told his treasurer to do it, and he agreed. He invited not just the Bodhisatta’s parents, but his and the commander-in-chief’s too, but none wanted to leave their homes. So the treasurer returned to the palace alone.

He first stopped to see the commander-in-chief who was angry at the treasurer for not choosing to make him king and the commander-in-chief ordered his men to beat him severely. The treasurer went immediately to report this to the Bodhisatta, who greeted him warmly with fancy clothes, fine foods, a shave, and such things. The Bodhisatta was furious at the commander-in-chief for becoming a worthless traitor and ordered him speared to death. But the treasurer begged him to show mercy, so the Bodhisatta forgave him. As a reward for the treasurer’s good character, the Bodhisatta put him in charge of all the merchant guilds.

In the Lifetime of the Buddha

The commander-in-chief was an earlier birth of Devadatta, a disciple of the Buddha who became his nemesis. One day some of the Buddha’s other disciples told Devadatta he ought to be grateful to the Buddha for all he had learned from him. But Devadatta picked up a blade of grass and said the Buddha had not even done this much good for him.

When the Buddha later overheard these disciples discussing it, he told them Devadatta had been ungrateful and treacherous to his friends in the past too and told this story as an example.

The treasurer was an earlier birth of Ananda, one of the Buddha’s top disciples.

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