Kukkura Jataka (#22)

painting of Kukkura Jataka

The Bodhisatta was once a dog who led a large pack living in a cemetery. One day after the king had been out having fun in his royal park, he arrived back at the palace after sunset, so his servants left the harness hitched to his luxurious chariot rather than putting it away. That night the king’s dogs came down and gnawed the beautiful leatherwork. Certain that no purebred dog would misbehave like this, the king and his servants assumed dogs from outside the palace must have snuck in through the sewer and done it. Enraged, the king ordered all dogs other than his own killed.

When the slaughter began in the city, many dogs fled to the cemetery and told the Bodhisatta what was happening. He knew that no city dogs could breach the palace walls so it must have been the king’s own purebreds. He promised the other dogs he would save them and set out to meet with the king. By focusing his mind on the ten perfections of the character (generosity, patience, truthfulness, etc.) he was able to freely walk the city streets and sneak into the palace unmolested. He and the king discussed the situation and the Bodhisatta explained that since the king had ordered some dogs to be spared, even though he did not know which dogs had actually gnawed the leather, he was following the four evil courses (partiality, dislike, ignorance, and fear) and this was unbecoming of a king.

Recognizing that the Bodhisatta was wise, the king asked if he knew who the real culprits were, and the Bodhisatta told him it was his own purebreds. The king wanted proof, so the Bodhisatta gave it to him. He told the king to mash up some grass, mix it with buttermilk, and make his dogs drink it: when they vomited, out came bits of leather. Impressed, the king offered to let the Bodhisatta become king. Instead, the Bodhisatta asked that the king listen to a sermon on righteousness. When it was finished, the king was so moved that he commanded no living creatures be killed in the kingdom ever again; and that from then on all dogs be fed the same food that he himself ate.

In the Lifetime of the Buddha

King Pasenadi, a righteous ruler and devoted supporter of the Buddha, always provided food for the Buddha’s disciples, but they did not stay and eat at the palace because the people there were not friendly. When the king found out they went to eat at their friends’ homes, he decided to marry a woman from the Buddha’s Sakya clan in order to build closer relations with the Buddha and his disciples. The Sakya clan was very haughty and insular and so did not want to marry into a relationship with the king, but because he was their leader, a request like this could not be refused without consequences. They decided to send a daughter of a nobleman born to a slave woman and tell King Pasenadi she was noble.

Knowing the Sakya clan’s reputation, the king’s assistants wanted to be sure the woman they were taking back was truly noble-born. So the family faked eating a meal together as proof. This was done by having what was claimed to be a very important letter delivered to the father at the start of mealtime that he needed to read right away, so he sat at the table reading rather than eating. This made it appear to the king’s assistants that he ate a meal with his daughter, but since he didn’t actually eat, he didn’t degrade himself with a slave.

King Pasenadi truly loved his new consort and made her his chief queen. Soon a son was born and he grew up receiving all the advantages a prince deserved, except he did not get gifts from his maternal grandfather’s family. Not wanting her son to know about her life, his mother lied and told him they sent nothing because they lived very far away. Once he grew up, he decided to visit his other family; and though she tried, his mother could not stop him.

Upon learning the prince was coming, the Sakya clan sent all their noble children younger than him away to the countryside so nobody would need to bow down in respect to someone born from a slave. After a few days, as the prince was leaving, one of his soldiers overheard a Sakya slave saying the prince’s mother had been a slave. Now knowing how the Sakyas had disrespected both he and his mother, the prince vowed to destroy them when he became king.

When King Pasenadi heard the news about his wife he was furious and gave her and his son nothing more than he gave to his other slaves. But a few days later the Buddha, while admitting that his clan did wrong, explained to the king that his queen and son were children of royal men and the mother’s birth was irrelevant. The king changed his mind and restored their honor.

The wife of King Pasenadi’s commander-in-chief had never borne him a son, so he sent her back to her family. Accepting her fate, she went to pay respect to the Buddha before departing, and he told her not to go. Elated by his counsel, she went home and told her husband. The commander-in-chief figured the Buddha must have a good reason for it and let her stay. Soon after, she got pregnant. She told her husband she wanted to bathe in and drink the holy water used for ceremonial sprinkling by the families of kings from another clan, so he took her there in his chariot.

Arriving at the well, he fought off the guards and broke through the iron net and they both bathed in the holy water before fleeing the city. Furious at the commander-in-chief’s violation, five hundred kings ignored the warning from their spiritual advisor that the commander-in-chief would slay them all and chased after him in their chariots. The commander-in-chief waited for all five hundred chariots to line up just right and then shot an arrow with his special bow, one thousand times stronger than a regular bow, and it passed through all five hundred kings right at the point where their belts were fastened. The kings did not notice their injuries and continued pursuit until the commander-in-chief shouted at them that they were already dead. Still standing and feeling fine, the kings thought he was crazy. But he told them to loosen one man’s belt, and upon doing so the man fell over dead. The commander-in-chief told the other men to go home and set their affairs in order before taking off their armor, and they all did, dying when they were ready.

Over time, the commander-in-chief’s wife gave birth to twin boys sixteen times. All thirty-two of their sons grew up to be heroic and perfect in every way.

One day some men who lost a court case pleaded with the commander-in-chief to help them because they felt the judges were corrupt. He looked into the matter and found they really were corrupt, so he judged the men’s case himself and sided with them. The city’s citizens applauded his intervention, and when King Pasenadi learned about it he put the commander-in-chief in charge of the court system. But the judges lost so much money by not being able to take bribes that they told the king his commander-in-chief was planning to overthrow him. Believing this lie, the king decided he must kill his commander-in-chief, so he hired some men to pillage towns in a border region and sent him and all thirty-two of his sons to capture these bandits. King Pasenadi also ordered some of his soldiers to behead the commander-in-chief and his sons while they were away; and they did.

When she learned of her husband and sons’ executions, the commander-in-chief’s wise wife summoned all thirty-two daughters-in-law and told them not to be angry or upset about it. Though their husbands were pure and innocent now, this must be the result of misdeeds from their former lives. Seeking revenge would be a sin even worse than the king’s. King Pasenadi’s spies reported this meeting to him, and after hearing about their reaction he was overcome with remorse. He went to see the Buddha, and while he was away from the palace, his new commander-in-chief, angry about the assassination, pulled a coup and put the half-slave prince on the throne. King Pasenadi vowed to reclaim his kingship, but on his return to the palace he died of exposure from having to spend the night in a shed after traveling very far in the sun and wind.

The new king had never forgotten his grudge against the Sakya clan for their disrespect of him and his mother, and now he could finally get revenge. He set out with a large army to their territory. The Buddha divined what was happening and decided he should save his clan. He went to the border and sat under a small tree that provided little shade. When the king came to this area, he stopped to greet the Buddha and asked why he didn’t sit under the large, shady banyan tree nearby. The Buddha answered that the shade of his family kept him cool. The king understood this meant the Buddha was there to protect his clan and he turned around. The king set out on the warpath twice more and both times the Buddha sat under the same tree, causing the king to back down.

After stopping the king’s rampage for the third time, the Buddha heard some disciples talking about how great he was for protecting his clan. He told them this story so they knew he had also done good things for his family in an earlier birth.

Later, the king set out a fourth time to destroy the Sakya clan and this time the Buddha decided that because of his clan’s previous sins, he would not protect them anymore. The king’s army slayed everyone they met, starting with babies, and then returned to the palace.

The king was an earlier birth of Ananda, one of the Buddha’s top disciples, and the city’s dogs were earlier births of the Buddha’s present followers.

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